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AN EFFORT TOWARD HOPE : Track Record and Contribution of ADB to Rebuild Aceh and Nias Through ETES

AN EFFORT TOWARD HOPE :

 Track Record and Contribution of ADB to Rebuild Aceh and Nias Through ETESP

Author:

Zulhamsyah Imran
Addie Permono
Thomas Nugroho
Rosalina Hutagaol

PREFACE

Praise we prayed to God the Almighty, of His grace, we are able to present this book. Hopefully, the presence of this book would be useful to all stakeholders involved in the disaster management works which frequently occur in some areas of our country.
Post-earthquake and tsunami disaster in Aceh and Nias, ADB responded quickly to provide grants of US$ 294.5 million as its commitment through Earthquake and Tsunami Emergency Support Project (ETESP), which the mechanism of its implementation set forth in the Grant Agreement between ADB and the Government of Indonesia on 29 April 2005. ETESP ADB has been carried over for 5 years and 8 months to December 2010. Many experiences and lessons could be learned during the ETESP progress. This book summarizes the implementation of ETESP into 6 sections.
Chapter 1 describes the effect of earthquake and tsunami disaster, total amount and source of the grant, the objectives of the project and scope of the project area.
Chapter 2 is more focused on the description of project management principles in accordance with the guidelines of ADB and the Government of Indonesia which adjusted for post-disaster conditions.
Chapter 3 and 4 explain ETESP contribution in meeting the basic needs and develop the economic foundations of post-disaster phase which leads to recovery social and civil infrastructures, food availability and stimulate the restoration of communities’ livelihood.
Chapter 5 is an illustration of some success stories and lessons learned from the implementation of ETESP.
Chapter 6 contains important notes and guidance of project management based on experiences and lessons learned from ETESP. This book does not pretend to describe ADB contribution completely which it is such a large works, but only describes a small part of ADB’s role in helping victims of the disaster in Aceh and Nias.
We say thank you to all who has supported and were involved in the preparation of this book. We would welcome input and suggestions from readers for the improvement of this book.
Jakarta, December 2010
Author

Pembelajaran Mengelola Kegiatan Perikanan Pasca Tsunami di Aceh dan Nias

Banyak pembelajaran dalam mengelola kegiatan perikanan pasca tsunami  di Aceh dan Nias.  Salah satunya  adalah pentingnya  koordinasi antar stakeholder.   Hal ini mengingat banyak  pelaku rehabilitasi dan rekonstruksi yang dilakukan oleh berbagai negara, lembaga internasional, NGO, dan masyarakat lokal.

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Budget Allocation and Disbursement

ETESP funds totaling around US$30,000,000 were channeled through government and consultant budgets, referred to as “on” and “off” budget respectively since 2005.  According to NACA completion report (2005), total contract and commitments US$ 27.149.000 could be disbursement roughly US$ 24.838.900,- on May 2009.  Following Table 2 was shown on budget allocation and disbursement from 2005 to 2008.

Table 2.  On Budget allocation and Disbursement for ETESP Fisheries Sector on 2005-2008

No. Task Force/Allocation/Disbursement Year
1. PMU RR MMAF 2005/2006 Carry Over
  Allocation (IDR) 74.400.000.000,-
  Disbursement 46.611.000.000,-
  Percentage (%) 62,65
2. PMU BRR SDKP* 2006
  Allocation (IDR) 148.580.000.000,-
  Disbursement (IDR) 26.060.351.111,-
  Percentage (%) 18,00
3. PMU ETESP ADB Perikanan 2007/2006 Carry Over
  Allocation (IDR) 172.408.149.000,-
  Disbursement (IDR) 120.998.103.047,-
  Percentage (%) 70,18
4. PMU ETESP ADB Perikanan 2008/2007 Carry Over
  Allocation (IDR) 47.719.050.000,-
  Disbursement (IDR) 34.166.941.239,-
  Percentage (%) 71,61

Source : Deputy Economic Completion Report (2009)

Note * started on September 2006

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ETESP Fisheries Sector Project Descriptions

According to Rehabilitation and Reconstruction Master Plan 2005, the fisheries sector were highly destroyed and affected by tsunami disaster.  One of the governments committed to recovery the fisheries sector through cooperation with Asian Development which program Earthquake and Tsunami Emergency Support Program (ETESP) Fisheries Component was sign on April 2005. 

The Fisheries Component of ETESP (ETESP-Fisheries) has supported rehabilitation and reconstruction of the fisheries sector and coastal natural resources in Aceh and Nias.  ETESP-Fisheries had six subcomponents, as follow (1) community empowerment; (2) small-scale capture fisheries; (3) small-scale aquaculture; (4) small-scale fish landings and post harvest facilities; (5) coastal resources rehabilitation; and (6) support fisheries service’s restoration.  It supported the rehabilitation of livelihoods of tsunami and earthquake were affected people who involved in fisheries sector in eleven districts/city in Aceh Province and Northern Sumatra, comprising : Aceh Besar; Aceh Utara; Pidie; Banda Aceh; Bireuen; Lhokseumawe; Aceh Jaya; Aceh Barat; Simeulue; Nias; and Nias Selatan.

Overal goal for the program implementation as the completion report by NACA stated (2009), to help rebuild the affected regions and support their economic revival to meet the Millennium Development Goals.  NACA as the planning consultant has defined several purpose to recovery the fisheries sector aftermath the tsunami disaster to (1) facilitate economic revival in the affected regions by restoring livelihoods; and (2) alleviate constraints due to the lack of adequate public goods and facilities by restoring essential public services and rebuilding infrastructure.  For more detail distribution, Table 1 was shown each component purpose.

Table 1. Summary sub components and objectives

Subcomponent Name Objectives
1. Community empowerment Coastal communities empowered to develop and   manage their resources
2. Restoration of capture fisheries Capture fisheries restored to biologically and economically sustainable levels of effort and landings
3.  Restoration of aquaculture facilities Aquaculture facilities and production systems restored on a sustainable basis
4. Restoration of small-scale fisheries post-harvest facilities Small-scale fisheries landing and post-harvest facilities restored
5.  Coastal ecosystem restoration Coastal environment rehabilitated and properly managed for sustainable use
6.  Fisheries support services Provincial and district/sub district fisheries and extension services re-established/strengthened

Sources : NACA Completion Report (2009)

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ETESP Fisheries – Achievements and foundations for the future

Background

On December 26, 2004, an earthquake measuring 9.0 on the Richter scale (Source: United States Geological Survey) struck off the coast of Aceh, Indonesia. It was the most powerful the world has seen in a generation. In the subsequent tsunami that followed, over 150,000 people lost their lives including fishermen and farmers, while an estimated 700,000 people were displaced.  The tsunami had caused of the damages to the local economy, infrastructure, and administration were unprecedented. World Bank stated, the total estimate of damages and losses from this matter in Aceh was IDR 41,4 Trillion, or US$ 4,45 Billion- equivalent to about 80 percent of Aceh’s regional gross domestic product.

The earthquake and tsunami also caused unprecedented damage to communities and infrastructure in the coastal areas of Aceh and North Sumatra (Philip and Budiman, 2005). Direct losses to the fisheries sector, including capture fisheries and aquaculture have been estimated at IDR 1,2 Trillion. Lost fisheries production, including aquaculture, as been estimated as IDR 3,8 Trillion. Of the more than 250,000 people dead or missing, fishers and households dependant on fishing and aquaculture make up a disturbingly high proportion of the losses.  Based on Word Bank Report, almost 4.717 boats lost and demage was impact by tsunami dissater.  Philip and Budiman (2005) stated,     of the estimated 47.000 ha of coastal fish ponds operating in 2004, a substantial proportion have been directly and indirectly affected by the tsunami.

The disaster was response from domestic and international communities in those countries affected by the tsunami. It is estimated that about US$ 7,7 billion was committed by the malgamation of funds from the Government of Indonesia, bilateral and multilateral donors, international NGOs, and communities both within and outside Indonesia towards the reconstruction program. 

In response to the disaster, an Earthquake and Tsunami Emergency Support Project (ETESP) was approved on 7 April 2005 by the Asian Development Bank (ADB) Board of Directors, providing $290 million grant financing from the Asian Tsunami Fund to meet the disaster management rehabilitation and reconstruction needs of Indonesia. The Project, a multi-sector project, to be implemented from 2005 to 2008, about $30 million of the grant is allocated to support restoration of the livelihoods of affected people in the fisheries sector

The ETESP was provide rehabilitation and reconstruction support to mitigate the damages caused by the devastating earthquake and tsunami. It was also help restore essential public services, rebuild infrastructure and revive economic activity through livelihood support including fisheries sector.