Archive for the ‘Seminar Resume’ Category

Taxonomy and Ecology of Metazoan Parasites of Alien Freshwater Fishes in Japan

Presented by Worawit Maneepitaksanti; Date: 2014/01/21

The phenomenon of biological invasion has been documented in recent years form many countries around the world.  When introducing new species including fish will follow its parasites, thus forming a sort of biotic unit.  Three species of tilapia was introduced to Japan since 1960 and it shown contamination of parasites.  Based on 1,329 blue gill which were collected from Hokaido to Okinawa Prefecture (49 locations) were found five metazoan ectoparasites.  These parasites compress to three monogeneans and two copepods.

The tilapia species was infected by monogeneans which different level and Onchocleidus dispar demonstrated the highest prevalence, following by O. ferox and Actinocleidus fergusson.  In case in Budo Resorvoir in Hiroshima University, O. ferox was found to be a dominant species, followed by O. dispar and A. fergusoni.  In this reservoir, both of O. ferox and A. fergusoni showed clear seasonal patterns in their infection level, but no such patterns were found in O. dispar.

As a conclusion, the seasonal change in mean abundance and egg sac production of this parasites in this region differ from that reported in temperate Hiroshima Prefecture and is not synchronized with the seasonal change in surface water temperature measured at sampling site.

Stock Enhancement for Sustainable Fisheriey: Experiences and Lessons from Black Sea Bream, Acanthopagrus schegelii (Bleeker) in Hiroshima Bay

Presented by Tetsuya Umino; Date: 2012/11/2

Stock enhancement program are conducted worldwide to increase the stock biomass and sustainable fishery.  More than 180 species have been released into coastal and marine environment in 64 different countries over the period 1984-1997.  Traditionally in Japan, red sea bream has been the marine fin fish species accounting for the largest number of juveniles released in stock enhancement programs.  In 1983, more than 16 millions hatchery-reared red sea bream were released throughout country.  Recently, the program has stabilized 25 million seed per year, while sea bream accounts for 20 million..

Hiroshima Bay is located in the western part of the Seto Inland Sea.  After the intensive fishing pressure for black sea bream caused a drastic drop in catch since the 1970s.  A stock enhancement program wad conducted in its northern part sin 1982 to restore the depleted stock.  Almost 1.4 million of these juveniles were released over the last three decades in Hiroshima Bay.

As a result,  Black sea bream juveniles have confirmed their fast fast and good acclimatization to natural conditions within 2 weeks and could recovery its landing after 3-4 years.  As consequence,  a drastic recovery of landings had led to several problems.  The excessive supply was accompanied by a reduction in the market price since 1990.  For example, in the period 1994-2000, the landing increased from 145 to 258 metric tons, however price declined from 1,048 to 432 JPY per kg in the same period.  Another obstacles were the pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) felt intern of socioeconomic in Hiroshima Bay.  The farmer complained about the reduction the production of oysters because ate by black sea bream.

In context the scientific evidence of genetic conservation, the high survival and contribution of hatchery-reared fish numbers of breeders to produce offspring for release has resulted in a low effective population size and important genetic drift.  The high rate of inbreeding detected warrants the necessity to carefully preserve and not compromise the genetic diversity of the species in the bay.

Socioeconomic Impact of Jellyfish Blooms on Fisher in Northern California Current

Presented by Keats Conley, M.S.

Jellyfish blooms had identified in ocean coastal waters area.  It was caused by upwelling, in particular every September.  However, it has increased pressure to fishing activities since  1990.  In Nothern California, fisheries sector has an importand contributed for the communities, especially for coastal communities.  The objective of this study is to investigate socioecomic impact of jellyfish blooms.  This research used mail survey by selected 122 commercial fisher to assess the economic impact of jellyfish blooms in the region of Nothern California Current.  This study found that the jellyfish species was determined by Chrysaura fuscercen.  This species bloom was influende to the economic of fisheries; however social impact was minimal. According to the fisher, Of total respondent (n=177) 59% said that jellyfish blooms reduced their seasonal revenue; but this impact ranged considerably by fishery and location.  Some fishers reported that there was no incrase in jellyfish blooms in last five years (2005-2010).  Jellysfish bloowms was high in Central Coast of California.    Establishing an average impact of jellyfish across fisheries is a useful baseline for group of organisms whose abundance can fluctuate dramatically and unpredictably from year to year.

Micro finance for Poverty Alleviation in Bangladesh

Presented by M. Sayeedul Haque

According to the most population density which have income per capita USD 848 annually, it can be said that 31.5% population live under poverty line and more than 90% of their income expenditure for food.  In fact, people below the poverty line reached 83% in 1975 and declined to 74% in the period 1981-1982.  The trend poverty line declining was also shown during 1991-2000 from 58.8% in 1991 to 48.9% in 2000.  This poverty line level continued went down to 40.0% in 2005.  To address this issue, Government of Bangladesh has developed micro finance system to eradicate poverty.

There is no single factor can cause rural poverty in Bangladesh.  The main factors identification have related to higher household dependency ratio, deprivation, social administration, illiteracy, unemployment, gender descrimination and poverty transfer through forefather.  However the most impprtant cause are rooted in the complex web of demographc, social, political and natural factors of this country.

Government of Bangladesh had been undertaking and implementing a number of poverty alleviation initiative including rural coperative moverment, microfinance, micro credit programs, livestock and fisheries development program, ruralindustries, infrastructural development, input distribution programs, skill development training,various social safaty net programs and creation of employment opportunies for the poor.

Encoraged Non Government Organization participation and it role in microfinance program is alternative solution to decrease the level of poverty.  NGO collaboration with government can intervention and bridging to establish the system palli karma sahayak foundation (PKSF), NGO affair bureau, and micro credit regulatory authority; which are now controlling and patronizing the overall microfinance industry in Bangladesh.  Another program of microfinance was Islamis Microfinance Model as approach for povery avilletion.

As a result, microfinance program can enhance some socio-economic well being of the economically avtive poor, who are capable of taking care themselves without participating it. However, it failed to improve the socio-economic status of the majority of the poor.

China Rice Industrial Economy: the market and the cooperative

Presented by Dr. Yang Wanjiong; Date: 2014/05/15

In china, the majority people have less land. Rice industry is important for national determination on food security. Historically, China has entered to transition era and expand marketing, livelihood development consider to food security. However,farmers has only 0.5 ha of rice field. They attempt to change rice production from small scale to industrial scale to anticipate single market in the world.

The evidence shown that the total area of rice field is 960 million km2. Rice consumption increase from 46.35 million ton/year to 146 million ton/year in the period 1977-2013, which average grew 91.32 ton/year during 1977-1979 and increase to 143 ton/year during 2011-2013. Thus, average growth of rice composition reach to 123.21 million ton during 37 years or 1.33%/year. In other hand, per capita per year rice consumption raised to 98 kg/year in 1984 from 50 kg/year in 1961. China Government expect that rice consumption will be 76.6 kg/capita in 2012. Recently, China rice market decreased from 70% to 20% after this country joint World Trade Organization (WTO); in contrast the price of rice extremely increased from 218 yuan/ton in 1978 to 2,761 yuan/ton in 2012 in level of production.

China Government decided to take high global price of rice in single market through cooperative development. As well known, cooperative has an important role for rice industry in China. It started establishment in 2001, more developed after 2007, and mature in 2012. According to modern business development, Farmer Cooperative is one of 4 type in China and it has grew up rapidly. There are 911 thousand FC registered legally until September 2013, which have 68.38 million members or 26.3% of total farmers. Mainly, FC has had public services and marketing function. To supported these function, China Government has taken over in grain industry cooperative. Now, public services cooperative has started to develop to anticipate the single market. China Government has also integrated grain industry and modern rice market system. As consequence, FC followed this policy to industrialize rice production which combine market mechanism system and strong incentive of government.

Two efforts were promoted for public services of rice cooperative. First actions were done by China Government as follow: specialized rice cooperative (Xiang Sheng), development production zone, focusing on large scale farmers (more than 100 members), provision incentive or grand investment by government (30-40% of investment), market vertical integration. Second action refer to technology and intensification, such as: agri-mechanization cooperative (Zhejiang Province), development 173 ha and would expand to 1,600 ha of rice land, development of big scale industry, put machine as a vital role in all process of production.