Archive for the ‘Seminar Resume’ Category

Marine Protected Area Management in Thailand: Chalenges and Solution

Presented by Suchai Worochananant; Date 2012/11/02

Thailand covers 514,000 square km with a coastline of 3,000 km.  This country has over 1.700 globally threatened species including several critically endangered mammal, bird, reptile, fish and plants.  Thailand marine life is equally rich and substantially different species assemblages occur in the waters on either side of the narrow Thai Peninsula.  About 35 species of mangrove and 12 species of seagrass have been reported with 5 species of turtle as well as dugong also found in this area.

To protect the endangered species in marine area, Thailand Government was established marine protected area more than five decades ago.  Now, MPA has covered 12% of marine and coastal area and it also reported as protected under the jurisdiction of a number of government agencies.  Thailand Government had a plan to increase MPA, accounting for 30%.  Therefore, there is a need to classify more clearly what the overall visions is for Thailand’s MPA and how they will contribute to national biodiversity conservation and sustainable development strategies.

Thailand’s MPA include a diverse range of characteristics, from coastal area to remote island; with no local community inhabitants to area with dense population, and areas with a few thousand visitors per year to those with more than 300,000 visitors per year.  The habitat composition in Marine Parks also range widely, from the domination of coral reefs to seagrass and mangrove.

Though Thailand’s MPA system seems to be expanding and evolving, there are some obstacles which limit the success of the system including obsolete legislation, the lack of master plan for MPA, the uncontrolable illegal fishing, the lack of collaboration among management agencies, escalating pressure of tourism and threatening natural phenomena such as the global warming or tsunami.

In Organic Performance and National Quality of Low Phytic Acid Crops

Presented by Dr. Victor Raboy; Date 2012/11/13

Phytic acid (myo-inositol-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate, or Ins P6) is the most abundant storage form of P in seeds, yet indigestible by humans and nonruminant livestock. PA is considered as an anti-nutrient in food, agriculture, and nutritional sciences. The role of PA as a food anti-nutrient motivated research aimed at reducing the PA content of commonly eaten foods through food processing, genetic engineering, and plant breeding.

A number of issues concerning the nutritional quality of grains and legumes revolve around the seed phosphorus storage compound called phytic acid. This phenomenon can contribute to human mineral deficiency, particularly with respect to iron and zinc. Dietary phytic acid may also have beneficial health roles, for example as an antioxidant or anticancer agent.

This research focus on amount and composition of biochemistry in agricultural proponent.  Main problem in agricultural product for human are: (1) don’t be effectively digest PA, (2) It buried tightly no mineral caution, and (3) these phytate salt are excrete malate by major grain and legume crops, and other agricultural product have been produced by fertilizer factory.

In fact, by using phosphate fertilizer can cause water pollution, which is called eutrophication.  Finally, most important issues in the world is supplies of phosphate for fertilizing of feeding may occur on 50-150 years later.  Now, many studies have conducted for animal and human phosphate acid.  As a result, the low phytic acid seed plant type and nutrionally in ruminant of animal.  The effect of barley grain pyrite level and supplemental zone on chick phobia zone in 21 days of age.

As a summary, numerous animal studies evaluate low phytic acid have shown that reduced phytic acid translated into available phosphate and declined phosphate waste.

Population Structure and Evaluation of Amphidromous Gobus in Central Pacific: What We Know about it today

Presented by Kiril Vinnikov; Date: 2012/07/04

In Indo-Pacific , insular river systems are colonized by Gobiidae with a life cycle adapted to the conditions in these distinctive habitats which are young oligotrophic rivers and subject to extreme climatic and hydrological seasonal variation.  These species spawn in fresh waters, the free embryos drift downstream to the sea where they undergo a planktonic phase before returning to the rivers to grow and reproduce, hence they are termed amphidromous.  Their biological cycle and the parameters leading to such extreme evolution in amphidromous gobies are poorly known, despite the fact that these gobies contribute most to the diversity of fish communities in Indo-Pacific insular systems and have the highest levels of endemism.  In Indo Pacific, A. gobies belong to the genus Lentipes, Sicyopterus, Stiphodon, Stegnogobius, Schismatogobius, and Rhinogobius.  They comprise nearly 170 species.

One species of gobies fish is Amphidromous gobus.  As unique species, A. gobus need to study more, in particular about biological systematic to answer the question who, what, where, when, and why.  This species can be classified into genus Stenogobius.  It has life cycle in stream, estuary and ocean (to release eggs and larvae).  The advantage of A. gobus adaptation can  colorization of new bio-tic area and survival in unstable environment.  There are 31 species which distribute in Indo Pacific to Southeast Asia.

Several step is need to study more about A. gobus,  First step, it is needed to learn about biological systematic by using phylogenetic or DNA.  To know the structure, many scholars use DNA method.  Second step, behavior of this species need to observe. Third step, to observe marine larvae of A. gobus how it disperse inside freshwater of the island during single life cycle or why it stayed near Natal Stream.

As a conclusion, based on the population structure of A. gobus, this research recommended to revise taxonomy status and conservation strategies.

Livelihood Development and Resources Management toward Social Resilience in Coastal Areas of Indonesia

Presented by Achmad Zamroni; Date: 2013/01/09

Livelihood development strategies in fishing community of Indonesia are implemented to encourage and improve participation of fishing community to diversities livelihoods.  The objective of this research is to assess the development livelihood strategies and resources management in fishing community toward resilience in Indonesian coastal area.  This research was conducted due  to potency and issues of fisheries livelihood development in case study area and Indonesia.  A series of study were conducted in the eastern part of Indonesia: Laikang Villages in Takalar District; Garassikang , LP Bahari, and Ujunga Village in Joniponto District; and Pengembangan Village in Jembrana.

Over-fishing was faced by Fishermen in Jimbrana because of effort increasing.  As consequence, some fishermen worked in construction work and other livelihood to overcome low income situation in off fish season.  Even, few boat owners sold their fishing fleet for survival their life and maintained other assets during the fish crisis.  Management intervention was needed to recovery this tragedy of common.

Meanwhile, in other study areas were  implemented small scale resources management project (SCRMP) to improve household economy of fishermen by encouraging the perspective activities, such as seaweed culture and fish peddling.  Around 77% of total respondents selected to cultivate seaweed with long line floating method.  At the present, this alternative livelihood has played an important role in socioeconomic of fishing community as the main income resources, beside fishing activities.  Fishing community can increase their income in range IDR 0.5-1 million, because seaweed farming gave them additional income.  They got a benefit from seaweed farming because the market system was supported properly by middleman to supply investment and daily operation cost.

Learning from the successful of SCRMP in Takalar District, at least two strategies can adopted and developed to overcome the fish crisis in Jimbrana  District through alternative and diversification of fisheries livelihood development, and adaptation strategies.  Sea weed as potential resources in coastal area can promote for alternative income through intensive cultivation and marketing expansion in the future.  It is also need to expand the potential farm area within coastal area due feasible criterion for seaweed   farming and establish zoning system for sustainable livelihood development.

Phytoplankton Community Occuring in the Southern Coast of Myanmar Especially Focusing on Potentially Harnful Dinofagellates

Presented by Su Myat; Date: 2013/01/25

Myanmar has been faced over fishing which ocean productivity and recent rapid coastal development were often led eutrophication and subsequent harmful algae bloom.  Any of these issues should be primarily regarded in a view of phytoplankton, however, researches and information are lack of in the Myanmar’s coast.  This research was firstly carried out in prior and post rainy season at the foremost marine fisheries area.

Eutrophycation can cause of phytoplankton blooms, including the harmful dinoflagellates.  This research objectives are to concern on study of eutrophycation and subsequent harmful algae blooms.  As a result, this research listed around 64 diatoms and 100 dynoflagellates species.  There were differs species founding the period March and May  2010.  This is because of different nutrient supply in coastal area and also due to oligotropchic environment in the late dry season, prolong rainy weather during the southwest monsoon, and mix coatal and ocenic waters.  High diversities of heterotrophic dinoflagellates cysts were also characteristics in Myanmar Coast.   These are 21 species as potential harmful dinoflagellates species finding.  Some species of dinoflagellates tolerate to temperature, especially in low temperature (15 degree celcius) and adapted to tropical environment.

Such dinoflagellates cyst also was conducted in Selangor District, west coast of Malay Peninsula.  In this area was also detected the toxic dinoflagellates such as Gynmnodinium catenatum and Alexandrium tamiyavanichii because this coast had already been polluted  by the cockle culture and paralytic selfish poisoning. Such awarness will be applied also to Myanmar coast to avoid from harmful algae blooms like is Selangor Coast.

As a conclusion, this study record remarkable diversties of diatoms and dinoflagellates off the coast of Myeik.  These diversities were largely influenced by two distinctive seasons caused by monsoon and largely supported by nutrient loads from native rivers or oceanic water extension, which all characteristics of the Myanmar coast.